Farm Animal Metabolism And Nutrition
This book presents specially commissioned reviews of key topics in farm animal metabolism and nutrition, where major advances have recently been made or which continue to represent issues of significance for students and researchers. * Advanced level textbook, no other advanced text in this area with such broad scope * First class contributors, including leading researchers from Europe, North America, South Africa and Australia
Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition
This book presents specially commissioned reviews of key topics in farm animal metabolism and nutrition, where major advances have recently been made or which continue to represent issues of significance for students and researchers. The contributors include leading researchers from Europe, North America, South Africa and Australia.
In recent years, lifestyle-related metabolic diseases, such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus have increased in prevalence in dogs and cats, as in human beings (3, 4). As also seen in human beings, obesity in animals is caused by overeating and physical inactivity, and is a risk factor for various diseases involving energy metabolism. Obesity is defined as ectopic lipid accumulation. Recent evidence suggests that reduced lipid storage in the adipose tissue of obese animals contributes to ectopic lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues, such as liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, where lipotoxicity can impair metabolic function (5). Excess calories and physical inactivity induce hyperglycemia followed by increased insulin secretion, which accelerates fatty acid synthesis via activation of transcription factors, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c. Acceleration of fatty acid synthesis induces ectopic lipid accumulation and increases visceral fat accumulation (the state of obesity). These recent findings emphasize the importance of veterinary research in understanding the pathogenesis and prevention of metabolic disease and for developing effective treatment.
Animal nutrition and metabolism aims to publish research on new and effective drugs for various diseases of many animal species through analyses of energy metabolism using new analytical techniques, i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Energy metabolism is the origin of animal health; imbalances in energy metabolism lead to animal disease. Studies on animal nutrition and metabolism, therefore, will benefit the health conditions of various animals. Topics of interest include food (nutrients), malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, rumen fermentation, restricted feeding, inflammation, metabolic disorders, lifestyle-related illnesses (obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension), tumors, genetic diagnosis, and development of supplements and drugs in animals.
Consumption of high-quality animal protein plays an important role in improving human nutrition, growth, development, and health. With an exponential growth of the global population, demands for animal-sourced protein are expected to increase by 60% between 2021 and 2050. In addition to the production of food protein and fiber (wool), animals are useful models for biomedical research to prevent and treat human diseases and serve as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins. For a high efficiency to transform low-quality feedstuffs and forages into high-quality protein and highly bioavailable essential minerals in diets of humans, farm animals have dietary requirements for energy, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and water in their life cycles. All nutrients interact with each other to influence the growth, development, and health of mammals, birds, fish, and crustaceans, and adequate nutrition is crucial for preventing and treating their metabolic disorders (including metabolic diseases) and infectious diseases. At the organ level, the small intestine is not only the terminal site for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also intimately interacts with a diverse community of intestinal antigens and bacteria to influence gut and whole-body health. Understanding the species and metabolism of intestinal microbes, as well as their interactions with the intestinal immune systems and the host intestinal epithelium can help to mitigate antimicrobial resistance and develop prebiotic and probiotic alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in animal production. As abundant sources of amino acids, bioactive peptides, energy, and highly bioavailable minerals and vitamins, animal by-product feedstuffs are effective for improving the growth, development, health, feed efficiency, and survival of livestock and poultry, as well as companion and aquatic animals. The new knowledge covered in this and related volumes of Adv Exp Med Biol is essential to ensure sufficient provision of animal protein for humans, while helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize the urinary and fecal excretion of nitrogenous and other wastes to the environment, and sustain animal agriculture (including aquaculture).
Much research on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in farm animals conducted over the second half of the 20th century has focused primarily on increasing the production efficiency and improving the quality and acceptability of animal-derived foods. Research was also performed with the express interest in greater understanding of biochemistry and metabolism of livestock species with ultimate application in the food industry. Knowledge about basic nutritional concepts and differences in metabolism among farm animals, however, has been accumulated and has been used successfully to better understand different health problems in humans such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and others that are associated with disturbances in metabolism and nutrition. Here we focus on researchers who made major contributions to our understanding of the synthesis and degradation including digestion of carbohydrates and lipids during the past half-century and to our understanding of the growth and development of meat-producing animals (e.g., pigs and cattle) and milk-producing dairy cattle. These findings will serve as the basis for current and future animal biologists to develop newer concepts and methods for use in improving the efficiency of conversion of animal feed to food and the healthfulness of that food for human consumers.
The roles of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and micronutrients in animal and human nutrition were broadly described during the late 18th and 19th centuries, and knowledge in protein nutrition evolved from work with all species. Although much of the fundamental and theoretical research in protein metabolism during the 20th century was conducted with laboratory animals, basic protein nutrition research in farm animals complemented those efforts and led to the development and use of new investigative methods (particularly in amino acid nutrition) as well as use of animal models in furthering the understanding of human protein metabolism. All these efforts have led to a contemporary hybrid model of protein nutrition and metabolism applicable to both humans and animal species. Now in the 21st century, farm animals are used in fetal and pediatric nutrition research, and data accruing for excess amino acid feeding in research with farm animals provide direction for assessment of pharmacological effects of amino acids when consumed in excessive quantities. Thus, as nutritional science is moving forward into nutrigenomics, nutriproteomics, and metabolomics, farm animal and human nutrition research interactions will likely continue with genetically modified farm animals produced for agricultural reasons (improved function and product quality) or those produced with human genes introduced to generate even better models of human protein metabolism.
Farm Animal Metabolism And Nutrition pdf free download. There is, once more, a need for an advanced textbook in animal biochemistry and nutrition that covers the specialist requirements of final year undergraduates and new postgraduate students. The existing books have long become out of date, and currently my students are directed to reviews published within the proceedings of various symposia and workshops.
As world population increases, demand for food and particularly animal products is expected to grow substantially. Because of limited area for expansion of animal agriculture and growing consumer concern for the environmental impact of animal production, gains in animal efficiency will have to be part of the solution. This book addresses key issues of how energy and protein are utilized and interact in farm animals from the molecular to the whole animal and even to the herd or group level of organization. It contains state-of-the-art research and reviews on several topics of nutrient utilization and metabolism from top scientists worldwide. Key issues addressed include energy/protein interactions, methodology such as in vitro and in vivo techniques, regulation including pre-natal programming and endocrine regulation, modeling and systems biology (including a tribute to the late Professor R. Lee Baldwin of the University of California, Davis, a leader in the field), products and health of animals, tissue metabolism, and environmental sustainability in agriculture. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, students, policy makers, producers and industry professionals believing that a better understanding of metabolism and nutrition of farm animals is part of the solution.
Dr. Yan Huang is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas. His research interests are nutritional regulation of muscle growth and development including myo-, adipo-, and fibrogenesis. With research experience in animal science and cell and molecular biology, he developed his independent research program at the University of Arkansas to focus on the function of mitochondria in muscle growth and meat quality.
ANSC 2000 COMPANION ANIMAL MANAGEMENT (3) LEC. 3. Practical aspects of behavior, nutrition, breeding, reproduction, health and management of dogs, cats and other animals generally considered to be human companions. 041b061a72