top of page

Support Group

Public·27 members

The Seventy-Four Gun Ship: A Practical Treatise...

IN Great Britain the naval arts are indigenous, and flourish with a superiority, which is the resultof a vast demand for their various labours. But, singular though it is, the British Nation cannotboast of having taught or considerably improved them by the efforts of her press. Whatever mayhave been the cause of this does not at present much import; although curiosity would excite us toinvestigate, why these subjects have more engaged the attention of French authors: perhaps it mightbe ultimately traced to the consciousness of practical superiority, or to the different national characteristic; for the reserve of an Englishman is almost proverbial.The germe of this work was a small and incomplete treatise on sail making, which some years agocame into the possession of the publisher. In the course of rendering that fit for general use, the reciprocal dependence of the naval arts was discerned; and it was instantly resolved to collect themall together, although public materials were few, and private communications were with difficulty tobe obtained. The subject of ship-building seemed capable of being, with propriety, treated as adistinct pursuit; and these considerations, added to the reflection that much was already knownupon that subject, produced the present labours upon the arts relative to or connected with the RIGGING OF A SHIP.When thus far advanced, a seaman rebuked the deficiency, by asking if a ship, completely rigged,was to remain an inert body. Of what use, said he, are these masts, and stays, and braces; these blocks,and sails, and anchors? Pray put your complex machine in motion; send her to sea, and send herthither with directions, to act singly or in fleets. Hence was perceived the necessity of an union between the naval arts and the purposes to which they are applied.This little history of our progress will perhaps strikingly illustrate their intimate connection. Theseaman, who knows what can be and is performed by the naval artist, and who knows the constructionand powers of the minutest parts of a ship's rigging, becomes a better judge of how the naval artsmay be improved, or how more effectually directed to the purposes of seamanship. While the navalartist, on the other hand, who is acquainted with the objects of a seaman's pursuit, will be better enabled so to direct the arts he professes, as to facilitate the attainment of those objects. Thus eachreflects a light upon the other; and, from the study of both, solid improvements in naval scienceare to be expected. We speak not without foundation; it is from this joint knowledge, that CaptainEdward Pakenham produced his excellent inventions concerning masts and rudders.The vanity of man makes him talk of the difficulties he has surmounted; the greater the difficulties,the more is his vanity gratified. Let it not, however, be attributed to this passion, if we mention afew of those impediments that presented themselves to us; but rather let them be taken as reasons, forour soliciting indulgence towards any errors that may, from that cause, have crept into the work.Actual workmen in each art were necessarily consulted, and their differing methods required comparison by others, in order that correct principles might be established, and the best practiceexplained. The disinclination of many to be open in their communications, from the possession of vi supposed secrets, has often opposed the advancement of these volumes, and often chilled the ardourof our perseverance. Nor was the path always smooth, where even liberality was found; for the bestpractical workman and the best practical seaman were generally inexpert in the use of the pencil; theycould describe, but not delineate; and artists were therefore employed, whose task was to elucidateby drawings the most complex figures and operations. Hundreds of the technical phraseswere vainly sought for in the common dictionaries, and even in the maritime vocabularies;and thence it became necessary to explain and prefix them to each art. The language of the workmanwas not sufficiently exact for the public eye, and this was obliged to pass under revision. The publications which at present exist upon the making of masts, ropes, anchors, sails, blocks, and uponrigging, are in the whole extremely few and incorrect: from them, therefore, much assistance couldnot be derived; making an exception, however, in favour of the Traite du Greement of M.Lescallier, which afforded some hints that corresponded with the practice in the British navy, andwhich were of course adopted. Thus, from the number of objects and of agents, the tediousnessof our progress may be conceived; but there labours will be amply repaid, if our theories are acknowledged to be (what we hope they are) theories demonstrated, and our practice of the different arts, the practice of their best artificers.Upon the two subjects of SEAMANSHIP and NAVAL TACTICS we owe many obligations to the writersof France. It has been long admitted that M. Bouguer has given the true theory of working ships,and that M. Morogues is the most enlightened author on naval tactics. M. Bouguer is too mathematically abstruse for general use: of more benefit, therefore, is the work of M. Bourde de Villehuet,named Le Manoeuvrier; because this latter gentleman has treated the laws of motion in fluids withregard to ships, and the effects of the different sails and of the rudder, in a manner equally correct andmore accessible to general comprehension; and he has furthermore shewn the exact correspondence ofpractice with theory. From these sources we have drawn much; but not from these alone: we haveresorted to writers and seamen of our own country, and gained from them much excellent practice.The NAVAL TACTICS will, we trust, be found more complete than any hitherto published; forall that is known of them, from M. Morogues to the Viscount de Grenier, is systematically arranged, and greatly elucidated by numerous engravings.The foster-parent of this work is none other than the publisher. In the long course of his business,particularly confined to maritime and nautical productions, he became acquainted with the wishes andthe wants of the naval world. Sincerely desirous to contribute the efforts of his station to the promotion of maritime science, he has employed years in collecting materials for it; he sought out themost skilful in their arts, and the most judicious in the sciences. And at length, with grateful thanksto many DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERS IN THE BRITISH NAVY who honoured him with their communications, and to those LIBERAL NAVAL ARTISTS who yielded him their assistance, he delivers, to theBritish nation, THE ELEMENTS AND PRACTICE OF RIGGING AND SEAMANSHIP. v CONTENTS.THE EXPLANATION OF THE FRONTISPIECE.The female figure represents Naval Science seated in a marine car. The triton is emblematical of the power of the ocean, as thefigure at the back of the car is that of the winds.Both seem to confess the dominion of Naval Science, by conducting the car in obedience to her commands.MAST-MAKING.-Vol. I.PageDescription, use, and position of masts, bowsprits, &c.1Explanation of terms used in mast-making3THE PRACTICE OF MAST-MAKING13Method of converting and lineing, or marking trees, to be sawed or hewed for putting together and completing made-masts, masts of single trees, bowsprits, yards, &c.14New method of making yards of two trees17Putting together and completing made masts18-- trestle trees and cross trees.24-- bibs26-- bolsters26-- caps26The making of masts of a single tree28-- cutters, sloops, smacks, hoys, and boat's masts28Putting together and completing made bowsprits, and bowsprits of a single tree31Putting together and completing made yards and yards of a single tree33The making of booms35-- gaffs36-- tops37-- davits38-- fire booms38The method of fixing masts in the royal navy and merchant service38Proportions for the height and diameter of masts in the royal navy39Proportional lengths and diameters of yards40Proportional lengths and diameters of booms40Proportional lengths of gaffs40Proportioned lengths of staffs40Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of sloops41Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of boats both sloop-fashioned and with lug sails41 PageProportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of launches and cutters both with lug sails and with settee sails41Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of barges and pinnaces with latteen sails42Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of barges, pinnaces and yawls, with spritsails42A fractional table of the proportions that every part of a mast or yard bears towards the given diameter at the partners in the tables of dimensions42A table of the value of fir timber in the year 179243Value of workmanship per foot in length, for putting together and completing masts, yards, booms, &c. in the royal navy44Diameters of masts, at their respective quarters, heads, heels, &c. as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the partners45Diameters of topmasts, topgallant masts, and royal masts, at their respective quarters, heads, &c. as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the cap45Diameters of bowsprits at their different quarters, &c. as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the bed46Diameters of mizen yards and yards in general at their different quarters, as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the slings46Diameters of booms at their different quarters, as they bear in proportion to the given diameter in the middle -47Diameters of gaffs at their different quarters, as they bear in proportion to the given diameter four feet from the end47Method of measuring rough trees for masts47Duties on masts payable in Great Britain47A table of rough trees most suitable for the various parts of masts, bowsprits, and yards48Lengths and diameters of masts, bowsprits, yards, booms, &c. in the royal navy, taken at their respective partners, cap, bed, slings, &c.49Lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. in the merchant service51viii ROPE-MAKING.-Vol. I.PageAn alphabetical description of the tools, and explanation of the terms used in rope-making53THE PRACTICE OF ROPE-MAKING59The making of cables60-- cablets61-- stay-ropes61-- main and fore tacks61-- bolt rope61-- tiller rope62-- ropes from two inches to the largest used for running-rigging62The making of twice-laid cordage62Observations on the proportional strength of cable-laid and hawser-laid ropes62The making of bolt-rope twine and cod-lines63-- cork lines, deep-sea lines, dolphin lines, Pagedrum lines, drum-fish line, fore-ganger, hambro lines, hammock lines, hand-lead lines, house line, jack line, lead rope, log lines, and mackrel line64The making of marline, sash-line, seal twine, seaming or sailmaker's twine, sean lines, sean twine, sean-nets, spunyarn, store twine, whale lines, whipping-twine, whiting lines, worming65A table shewing the length of yarn required for cablets, hawsers, &c.66The proportional strength which ropes bear to each other66A cordage table shewing at one view the number of threads, weight, and length, of every sort of rope and twine66Contract for cables and cordage for the royal navy67-- cordage for the East-India Company69Parliamentary regulations concerning rope making70ANCHOR-MAKING.-Vol. I.General description and use of anchors77Description of the tools, and explanation of the terms used in anchor making77THE PRACTICE OF ANCHOR MAKING78The most approved dimensions and weight of anchors81 The number of anchors allowed each ship in the royal navy, with their weight and value81Dimensions of grapnels and creepers82Duty on the importation of anchor stocks82SAIL-MAKING.-Vol. I.General description and use of sails83Explanation of the technical terms relative to sails, and description of the tools used in sail making86Instructions for cutting out sails91Instructions for sail making92Rules for ascertaining the quantity of canvas contained in the different sails96Rules for finding the quantity of canvas in the different gores97Particular directions for making a ship's main course98-- fore course99-- mizen course100-- main top-sail101-- fore top-sail102-- mizen top-sail103-- main top gallant sail104-- fore top gallant sail104-- mizen top gallant sail104-- main royal sail105-- fore royal sail105-- mizen royal sail105-- main stay sail106-- fore stay sail106-- mizen stay sail107-- main topmast stay sail108-- fore topmast stay sail109-- middle stay sail110-- mizen topmast stay sail111 Particular directions for making a ship's main top gallant stay sail112Particular directions for making a ship's lower main studding sails113Particular directions for making a ship's lower fore studding sails113Particular directions for making a ship's main top mast studding sails114Particular directions for making a ship's fore top mast studding sails114Particular directions for making a ship's main top gallant studding sails115Particular directions for making a ship's fore top gallant studding sails115Particular directions for making a ship's jib116-- spritsail course117-- spritsail topsail117-- driver boomsail118-- brig's main sail119-- cutter's main sail120-- cutter's try sail121-- sloop's main sail122-- sloop's try sail or storm mainsail123Particular directions for making a sloop's square sail or cross jack124Particular directions for making a sloop's top sail125ix PageParticular directions for making a sloop's save-all top sail126Particular directions for making a sloop's gaff top sail126-- sloop's top gallant sail127-- sloop's water sail127-- sloop's fore sail128-- sloop's jib129-- sloop's storm jib130-- sloop's flying jib130-- sloop's ring-tail sail131-- smack's main sail132-- smack's fore sail133-- smack's jib134-- ship's sky scrapers135-- ship's royal stay sails135-- ship's storm mizen135-- ship's spritsail top gallant sail135-- wing sail for ketches135-- boat's settee sail136 PageParticular directions for making a boat's latteen sail136-- boat's latteen sail136-- boat's lug sail137-- boat's sprit sails138-- boat's foresail138-- boat's jib139-- awnings140-- quarter cloths141-- mast coats141-- rudder coats142-- windsail or ventilator142Parliamentary regulations relative to sails and sail cloth143Table, shewing the length of any gore by its depth148The number of reefs, points, ropebands, and gaskets, in fitting the courses and top sails148A table of the sizes of all bolt ropes148*Dimensions of the different sails belonging to a ship of each class in the royal navy and merchant service149*General observations on sail-making151* BLOCK-MAKING.-Vol. I.General description and use of Blocks149Description of the tools and explanation of the terms used in block-making150Particular description and delineation of the patent block mill151THE PRACTICE OF BLOCK-MAKING153Proportions of blocks153Directions for the progressive making of a block153-- strapping154-- sheaves154-- coking or bushing with metal154-- plank-coaking155-- pins of a block155-- made-blocks155-- bee-blocks155-- cheek blocks or half blocks155-- deep-sea-line blocks156-- D blocks156-- long-tackle block156-- main-sheet block156-- monkey blocks156-- nine-pin blocks156-- quarter block156-- rack blocks156-- shoe blocks156-- shoulder block156-- sister block156 Directions for the snatch blocks157-- strap-bound blocks157-- thick-and-thin blocks157-- voyol or viol block157-- warping block157-- dead eyes158-- hearts158-- bull's eyes158-- parrals158-- trucks158-- uphroes159-- cleats159-- wedges159-- belaying pins159-- racks160-- toggles160-- thimbles160-- travellers160-- hanks160-- iron hooks for tackles160-- fids160-- marline spike160-- mallets160-- chock160serving board160-- shoes for anchors160 RIGGING.-Vol. I.Explanation of the terms used in rigging161THE PRACTICE OF RIGGING181Instructions for making of bends181-- making a catspaw181-- making clinches181 Instructions for crowning182-- making a flemish eye182-- making foxes182-- frapping182-- making gaskets182x PageInstructions for making hitches182-- making knittles182-- making knots182-- lashing183-- marling183-- parcelling183-- plaiting183-- pointing183-- making points184-- making ropebands184-- seizing184-- making a salvagee184-- making sennitt184-- serving184-- making a sheep-shank184-- snaking184-- splicing184-- making a stop185-- whipping185-- worming185A table, shewing the length of the first warp of standing rigging185*The several articles and their quantities allowed for preparing the rigging in the house186Contract prices paid by government (for labour only) for rigging ships in the river Thames186RIGGING PREPARED IN THE HOUSE186*-- for the lower masts186*-- for the top masts189-- for the top gallant masts190Rigging prepared in the house for the strapping of blocks190Rigging prepared in the house for the necessary ropes191PROGRESSIVE METHOD OF RIGGING SHIPS194The method of rigging a ship's bow sprit194-- jib boom195-- spritsail yard196-- spritsail topsail yard197-- fore, main, and mizen sails197-- top masts199-- top mast stays201-- lower yards201-- topsail yards204-- top gallant mast205-- top gallant yards206-- cross-jack yard207-- mizen yard207-- driver or spanker boom208Representation of the standing rigging of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts208*Representation of the running rigging of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts209*Representation of the fore-and-aft sails of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts210*Representation of the square sails and driver of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts211*The method of bending a ship's jib209-- fore top mast stay sail209-- foresail210 The method of bending a ship's mainsail211-- fore topsail212-- main topsail212-- mizen topsail213-- fore top gallant sail213-- main top gallant sail213-- mizen top gallant sail213-- royals214-- main stay sail214-- main top mast stay sail214-- middle stay sail215-- main top gallant stay sail215-- mizen stay sail215-- mizen top mast stay sail216-- mizen top gallant stay sail216-- mizen course217-- driver or spanker sail217-- lower studding sails217-- top mast studding sails218-- topgallant studding sails219-- spritsail219-- spritsail topsail219The method of rigging a snow220-- an hermaphrodite220-- a brig220-- bilander220-- ketch220-- schooner221-- lugger221-- cutters222-- sloops and smacks227-- hoys and lighters227-- sailing barges227-- ships long-boats or launches229-- ships pinnaces and rowing barges229-- ships cutters or yawls229Necessary ropes, and various operations incidental to rigging, performed on board230To rig awnings230To make bentinck shrouds230To prepare boat ropes231To rig boomkin shrouds231To make dolphins231To prepare the flags231Frapping a ship231To make gripes231-- grommets232To prepare gun-tackling232To lash booms232To make mats232-- martingal stay233-- netting233Parbuckling233To make preventer shrouds233-- port-tackles233-- puddening of sails and yards233-- relieving tackles233xi PageTo make rolling tackles233To rig various ropes, such as entering ropes, tiller ropes, &c.234-- rudder pendents234-- skiatic stay234To span booms234-- runners234To make stern ladders234-- stoppers235To rig swifters235-- top-burton tackles235-- travelling backstays235-- winding tackle pendent235-- yard tackles235DESCRIPTION OF FOREIGN VESSELS236-- a norwegian cat236-- bark236-- pink236-- polacres236-- a polacre-settee236-- a xebec237-- bomb ketches237-- a howker237-- a dogger237-- koff238-- galleys238-- half and quarter galleys238 Page-- Description of a Bombay galley238-- a settee238-- a felucca238-- houarios238-- a galliot239-- French shallop239-- Dutch hoys239-- Dutch sloops239-- a bus239-- a bugalet239-- fishing barks239-- a tartan239-- a bean-cod239-- chinese junks240-- pardos240-- champans240-- japanese barks240-- caracores240-- barks


Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...
bottom of page